Core 5G Tutorials
TUT06, Free space optics: Potentials, challenges, and perspectives
Authors: Abderrahmen Trichili (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia); Mohamed-Slim Alouini (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia)
Abstract: Optical wireless communication (OWC) has received considerable attention for a variety of applications due to the broad unlicensed spectrum. OWC systems operate over different frequency bands to carry information on optical signals, which are then ultraviolet, visible, and infrared. In this tutorial, we will mainly focus on infrared OWC, commonly referred to as free space optics (FSO). FSO can guarantee a high-bit-rate line of sight transmission over long distances of up to several kilometers. As such, FSO is an attractive solution to the last-meter and last-mile connectivity problems in communication networks, mainly when fiber optics installation is unavailable. Installing FSO systems can significantly help to tackle the “digital divide” by lowering the installation time and cost. FSO is equally expected to be a significant part of the beyond 5G eras. However, FSO is subject to different technical and channel related challenges, including alignment, divergence, and random propagation effects. Various diversity and multiplexing based techniques have been proposed to improve the reliability and transmission capacity of FSO systems. Recently, the spatial structure of the light as an additional degree of freedom for FOS communications was proposed. The concept is better known as spatial mode multiplexing (SMM). Until now, FSO demonstrations, including those with spatially structured light, have been mostly confined to well-controlled laboratory conditions. The goal of this tutorial is to present the new trends in FSO and the main challenges to establish high-bit rate outdoor optical wireless links. The attendees of the tutorial will also become familiar with SSM-based FSO and how to harness structured light beams in a real-world environment. We will further present the potential of FSO for deep-space communication.
TUT09, 5G Functional Splits for vRAN and Future RAN Cloudification
Authors: Babak Jafarian (Casa Systems Inc, USA)
Abstract: Open RAN and how the mobile industry is moving away from legacy “monolithic” based radio access network is the hottest topic during the past couple of years. This approach is the cornerstone for 5G and future mobile networks to be multi-vendor, multi-technology, and cloud-based. This tutorial addresses the new concepts of distributed RAN based on different types of splits and how this new paradigm needs a new orchestration and network management.The tutorial starts with reviews of the current trends in the overall design of 5G network architecture and will address how these architectures translate into new 5G RAN architecture requirements. The 5G protocol stack architecture will be discussed in detail; differences with 4G, and what are the reasonable function splits in 5G RAN. Also, we will discuss the impact and challenges of fronthaul and backhaul availability for different types of splits in the future 5G deployments. Due to exponential increases in mobile data demands in recent years and deployment of 5G networks, soon network densification is considered as a critical mechanism in the evolution of cellular network deployments. In the ultra-dense heterogeneous networks for 5G, the base stations are brought closer and closer to the users through dense deployments. However, the performance and capacity of the network do not increase monotonously with the increasing number of base stations due to inter-cell interference and backhaul/fronthaul limitation. We will address the challenges and solutions to tackle densification problems. is a 20 years veteran executive of the wireless and telecommunications industry. His in-depth understanding of current mobile technologies, together with his awareness in diverse environment is grounded in two decades of first-hand experience in working for mobile operators and vendors across the world. Directly involved in standardization efforts and product developments for 3G and 4G systems.
TUT10, Private 5G – trends and architecture evolution
Authors: Subhas Chandra Mondal (Wireless & Wipro Technologies, India)
Abstract: As 5G finds its way in real deployments, the ecosystem is figuring out the monetization opportunities through industry use cases. Making the best use of 5G architectural tenets to deliver superior user experience for the Industry applications will play a critical role in fostering rapid adoption of 5G technology beyond traditional communication services provided by the Telcos. Enterprises are looking at building their own network to attain greater autonomy. WiFi and cellular radio can attain far more synergy in 5G architecture In this Tutorial, the following will be covered: – Public vs. Private network – historical background – Market trends and spectrum perspective – Standards evolution to support Vertical use cases like industrial automation, traffic management – Deployment options – Convergence of 3GPP and Non-3GPP access technologies – How 5G will expose its capabilities for Industry applications I would request for 90-120 min session to provide a well rounded tutorial with reasonable details for the attendees to benefit from.
TUT11, Wireless Virtualization for Enhancing Network Capacity, Coverage, Energy Efficiency and Security for 5G and Beyond
Authors: Danda B. Rawat (Howard University, USA)
Abstract: Over the last several decades, we have experienced tremendous growth in the use of cellular telephones and Wi-Fi networks for home and office, as well as emerging wireless technologies geared toward different applications. The massive growth of lightweight hand-held devices used to access wireless networks has resulted in an exponential increase in demand for wireless services and severe wireless spectrum shortage. To overcome these problems, beyond spectrum sharing with licensed users, a new wireless architecture is needed to enhance network coverage, capacity and security. This tutorial will present recent advances in wireless virtualization for 5G and beyond that is expected to significantly advance the field of wireless communications, with an expectation of opening transformative research directions. Specifically, we will focus on a) devising a novel generalized wireless virtualization architecture, or Wi-Vi, to provide wireless services to users using Radio-as-a-Service where Wi-Vi architecture will enhance network capacity, coverage, seamless mobility and energy efficiency, and thus be able to support trillions of devices in next generation wireless systems; and b) by extending the scope of the proposed Wi-Vi framework for performance isolation, security and privacy while providing quality-of-service/experience to users in a diverse wireless environment. Moreover, this tutorial will help researchers across many fields understand how wireless communications influences the emerging fields such as smart grid, eHealth, vehicular networks, next generation cellular networks, Internet-of-things, cyber-physical systems and secure cyberspace.
TUT12, Challenges and Opportunities in the Analysis and Optimization of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Authors: Francisco Falcone (Universidad Publica de Navarra, Spain)
Abstract: The progressive adoption of Internet of Things and the deployment of 5G networks is leading to heterogeneous network operation scenarios, with diverse quality of service requirements given by highly dynamic user demands. In this sense, ultra-dense node environments will coexist with high mobility applications, leading to complex scenarios in terms of interference characterization and handling. Moreover, a vast number of nodes is foreseen to enable IoT environments, with inherent restrictions in terms of form factor, energy consumption and cost. In this context coverage/capacity analysis is a valuable tool in order to perform device as well as system level design, considering interference impact and variable transceiver densities. This tutorial focuses on the challenges in wireless channel analysis applied for coverage/capacity analysis and interference determination in heterogeneous wireless system operation, including 5G NR for FR1 and FR2 frequency ranges. An overview of different wireless characterization techniques is provided, focusing on new hybrid deterministic simulation approaches as well on current empirical based models. Several scenarios under test will be described, providing insight on coverage/capacity estimations and subsequent system design and optimization in order to comply with quality of service and quality of experience requirements.
TUT13, Beyond Massive MIMO — Promising Research Directions for Antenna Arrays
Authors: Luca Sanguinetti (University of Pisa, Italy); Emil Björnson (Linköping University, Sweden)
Abstract: Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) is no longer a “wild” or “promising” concept for future cellular networks-in 2019 it became a reality, with 64-antenna base stations (BSs) being commercially deployed in many countries. The development of the Massive MIMO communication technology is now in the hands of the product departments of companies such as Ericsson, Huawei, Nokia, etc. A large number of communications, signal processing, and optimization algorithms have been developed over the last ten years and it remains to be seen which ones will work well in practice. Before the product developers have had the chance to try out the existing algorithms, there is limited need for further algorithmic development and capacity analysis in the scientific literature. It is, therefore, time for MIMO and mmWave communication researchers to change focus towards new applications of antenna arrays. If 5G becomes a commercial success, massive digitally controllable antenna arrays will be deployed “everywhere”. What else can we use this spatial resolution for and how will the antenna deployment evolve beyond 5G? This tutorial starts by giving a brief overview of Massive MIMO and how the many open problems that were identified five years ago have now been solved. Bearing in mind that Massive MIMO was considered science fiction just ten years ago, we now need to target new theoretical but practically challenging problems to develop the next multiple antenna technology. In the tutorial, we outline two such forward-looking research directions: Cell-free Massive MIMO, and Holographic MIMO. We will provide the analytical foundation, a historical background, and a vision for future development.
TUT14, Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) in 5G: From Theory to Reality
Authors: M. Majid Butt (Nokia Bell Labs, France); Eduard Jorswieck (Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany); Muhammad Ali Imran (University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (Great Britain)
Abstract: 5G is expected to support Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) based services, such as industrial control, remote surgery, tactile internet, etc. These are also the most challenging services to implement because they require a new network design and control methodology, in order to satisfy their requirements and enable their co-existence with other types of services that 5G and beyond systems need to deliver. Indeed, today as we enter the Phase 3 of 5G design leading to 6G, it is imperative not only to understand how to deliver URLLC services but also to ensure that they will be offered in a sustainable fashion (i.e., not draining all network resources) that is compatible with the already provided enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) services. The proposed tutorial addresses the signal processing and optimization aspects of URLLC for 5G and beyond networks. The tutorial will cover a novel system design framework, state of the art signal processing and optimization techniques; and introduce cross disciplinary methodology to discuss complex trade-offs in 5G and beyond networks in view of URLLC.
TUT15, Practical approach to 5G Network slicing
Authors: Prakash Suthar (Cisco Systems, USA); Rajaneesh Sudhakar Shetty (Cisco Systems Inc., India); Vivek Agarwal (Cisco Systems Inc., USA)
Abstract: 5G Network slicing enables operators to configure virtual network instances and stitch together, instantiated automatically and optimized to meet specific functional requirements of a subscriber or application. Network slicing requires optimal deployment of user requirements and network functions and resource exclusivity on end-to-end 5G infrastructures to provide desired quality of service. As part of network slicing designer need to stitch slice business requirements, networks resource availability in entire chain, user equipment subscription and policy mapping and develop slice instantiation procedures. Network slicing can be achieved by various ways depending on 5G network functions such as Network Slice Selection Function (NSSF), User Equipment Route Selection policy (URSP), Slice or Service type (SST) and Slice Differentiator (SD) which need to be carefully planned to achieve desired outcome. The tutorial will provide a practical design approach towards network slice design on core network aspect. We will start with network slice overview followed by design criteria and input requirements. We will deepdive into relevant policies, application binding and mapping to slice, network functions selection criteria using Callflow walkthrough for slice combinations. In summary the speakers will share their experience with participants on how to realize networking slicing from theory to practical approach. The session will also help participants how to optimize and design network resources for successful deployment of network slices.
TUT16, Narrow-Band Wireless Wide-Area Network Technologies; Overview and Performance Evaluation for 5G use cases
Authors: Zubair Amjad (ivESK, Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany); Jubin Sebastian E (Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
Abstract: Wireless networking technologies are one of the major building blocks of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 applications. To meet the wireless connectivity requirements such as long-range, low-cost, low-bandwidth, scalability, and low-energy (for battery powered or energy-autarkic operation), new classes of Narrow-Band Wireless Wide-Area Network (NBWWAN) technologies are introduced. NBWWAN promises a new level of link budgets at low output power and cost allowing a long range and stable local communication in IoT deployments . In general, NBWWANs may operate in unlicensed and licensed bands. The networks operate in unlicensed bands and proprietary solutions are already available in the market such as LoRa/ LoRaWAN, SigFox, MIOTY, Weightless, Ingenu etc. Alternative for the LPWANs in licensed band are cellular network variants, being standardized by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) under the umbrella term of cellular IoT (cIoT). The most suitable cIoT technology for LPWAN use case is Narrow-Band Internet of Things (NB-IoT). The LPWAN and cIoT technologies are collectively referred as NBWWAN since it operates on narrow bandwidth and mainly target to achieve wide-area coverage. Since these networks typically operate in a spatially distributed environment and their characteristics and functions coupled with wireless channels, it is a tedious process to systematically compare, test, and measure the performance of these wireless systems. For performance evaluation, construction of systematic test environment is an important task. This tutorial presentation focusses on in-depth theoretical concepts and sharing our experience with performance evaluation of NBWWANs.
TUT17, Doherty Power Amplifier Design for 5G Cellular Infrastructure
Authors: Dushayant Kumar Sharma (Wipro Limited, India)
Abstract: The 5G wireless revolution presents some dramatic challenges to the design of cellular infrastructure, as 5G targets higher data rates with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas, ultra-low latency, new waveform, etc. The type of waveform used in the radio access network is a defining characteristic of any mobile generation. During the development phase of 5G NR, orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) and its variants are the main candidates for the waveform. Unfortunately, these waveforms exhibit a very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). This high PAPR increases the 5G base station cost by increasing wasted power and its cooling requirement. To accommodate this challenge 5G RF transmitter demands higher-power efficiency and stringent linearity from its power amplifier (PA). To fulfill these requirements Doherty amplifier is the most suited solution due to its simple structure and high efficiency at back-off power. However, its design process varies tremendously across the use case, frequency range, power range, and device technology. Due to this, the design procedure of a Doherty PA is often subjected to tuning and optimization. In this tutorial, I will cover the entire lifecycle of an efficient power amplifier design.
TUT18, Performance Analysis of 5G Networks: New Directions
“The most certain challenge posed by Gigabit broadband and IoT to 5G RANs is traffic uncertainty.”
Authors: Vijayalakshmi Chetlapalli (Member, IEEE, India); Kss Iyer (International Institute of Information Technology, India)
Abstract:Future wireless networks like 5G will carry an increasingly wide variety of data traffic, with different QoS requirements. In addition to conventional data traffic generated from HTTP, FTP and video streaming applications by mobile broadband users (human-type communication (HTC) traffic), traffic from machine-to-machine (M2M) and Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications (machine-type communication (MTC) traffic) has to be supported by 5G networks. Some of these data applications are sensitive to delay (live-video, IoT in medical application etc.), while others (FTP, e-mail, smart-metering etc.) are not. HTC traffic at the base station is characterized by two stages of randomness:(i) at the macro level, the arrival processes of service requests of different types of service (ii) at the micro level, the rate of packet generation of the service type, the size of these packets and their servicing times (waiting time + transmission time). The macro level arrival process (i.e. connection-level) is non-stationary, depending on the temporal dynamics of service usage. The length of data session in HTC traffic is random, thereby the number of packets generated in any given interval of time is random. In MTC traffic, randomness in traffic arises from random number of devices trying to connect to the base station at any given time. Packets generated by devices may be either periodic or event-triggered, and number of packets generated is small. Estimating time-dependent aggregate traffic from all types of traffic and the delay experienced by each traffic type is critical in designing 5G access networks that ensure the stipulated QoS requirements of each traffic type. Nevertheless, it is difficult to model aggregate traffic due to the time-dependent arrival rate of human-type and machine-type traffic. In this tutorial, special correlation functions of stochastic point processes called Product Densities (PDs) are used for estimating time-dependent aggregate traffic and delay in both types of traffic, as seen by the base station. For HTC traffic, PDs are defined for evaluating offered load under time-dependent connection arrival rates (macro level) and for estimating the expected number of ON periods in an interval of time
(0,T)(0,T) (micro level). For MTC traffic, PDs are defined for estimating the random number of devices connected to the base station at any time. Another QoS parameter in MTC is the expected number of devices delayed beyond a certain critical value of delay. Bi-variate PDs are defined to estimate the number of devices experiencing delay beyond a given critical threshold. The results from PD model are verified with simulation. This tutorial demonstrates the PD technique as an effective tool for estimation of time-dependent aggregate traffic, supported by simulations.
TUT19, Quantum computing for 5G networks
Authors: Manjunath Ramachandra (Wipro, India)
Abstract: In order to support the numerous applications and devices in real time communication with agreed Quality of Service, a large scale planning before deployment of 5G networks and subsequent tuning of the parameters is necessary. It calls for the networks to be dynamic and adaptive with built-in intelligence to shape the traffic. Artificial intelligence and optimisation algorithms can be successfully used for this purpose. Although the technology is very helpful and practical, their scope is limited in time and space. E.g. such algorithms can have the visibility of a few datacentres with the prediction last over a few seconds, often demanding unaffordable resources, time and power. To take it to the next level, a global intelligence platform is required for prediction, optimisation, and categorisation etc.in real time encompassing large networks. Quantum computers addresses all these issues in one shot with their support for massive parallelism as ease of access. Today, APIs making use of quantum computers have been hosted on the cloud for commercial applications. Telecom service providers have started to use the applications to plan for the next generation mobile networks. This proposal is to provide the background of quantum computing, the algorithms and techniques useful for the 5G networks.
TUT20, Process offloading architecture over the 5G networks
Authors: Manjunath Ramachandra (Wipro, India)
Abstract: In the near future, cloud resources will be increasingly used over 5G networks both for data steaming and processing in real time. It calls for very low latency in the round trip. Support for the latency of less than 1 ms for the mobile user is an important aspect of 5G technology. Towards this, it is a challenge to support the upcoming AR/VR applications and provide a seamless experience for a user travelling past the 5G network in a bullet train with a speed of 500 kmph. By the time a channel gets established and streaming starts with a ground station or a fog network, it would vanish from the horizon. It requires continuous tracking of the user, prediction of the next moves and monitoring of e traffic pattern over the network to provide seamless experience. To make it happen, offloading of data or the process should happen dynamically along the path of the user over the right choice of fog or edge terminal. In addition, the process migration with partial or completed results should follow the user with the same speed. This tutorial proposal details the problem along with the solution alternatives to support the high speed mobile users.
Bala Krishna Maddali
USICT, GGS Indraprastha
Global 5G Tutorial Coordinator/Chair
University of Technology, Jamaica